Category / Uncategorized

New BU paper published on Plos One

Congratulation to Dr Francesco Ferraro, who published his latest paper on Plos One. 

The paper “Comparison of balance changes after inspiratory muscle or Otago exercise training” comes from Dr Ferraro`s PhD where, under the supervision of Professor McConnell, Dr Gavin and Associate Professor Wainwright, he looked at the effects of inspiratory muscle training on balance and physical performance with older adults.

This latest paper looks at the potential benefit of inspiratory muscle training as an alternative to standard balance training intervention.  The findings of this pragmatic parallel study support the hypothesis that 8 weeks of unsupervised, individual, home-based inspiratory muscle training, improves balance ability to a similar extent to supervised, group-based balance training in healthy older adults.

The article is now fully available as open access here


Dr Ferraro.


Deep Transformation and the Future of Organisations, The Penthouse, Tunis, 6-7 December 2019

Following the successful conference on the “Sustainability Goals implementation in the Era of Digitalisation in North African Countries” involving a team of colleagues i.e. Dr Julie Robson, Dr Kaouther Kooli and Dr Elvira Bolat (details here), once again Bournemouth University successfully collaborated with the Manouba University, the Laboratory LIGUE and the APIQ-ISCAE, to organize the 4th Edition of the LIGUE International Conference held in Tunis, on a very timely and interesting conference addressing the “Deep Transformation and the Future of Organisations”, the 6&7 December 2019. More than 240 academics in all fields of business science and practitioners have participated to this interdisciplinary event and more than 60 blind reviewed communications and talks have been presented. In addition to the papers’ presentation sessions, 2 special sessions and 4 workshops have been organised around sustainability issues in the textile sector, Case studies, General Data Protection Regulation, Governance in local collectivities, Methodology and Critical thinking.














Opening Ceremony Panel : Professor Jouhaina Gharib   (Chair of the University of Manouba), Professor Hamadi Matoussi (Founder of the LIGUE laboratory and Co-Chair of the conference), Professor Salma Damak (University of Carthage, Chair of the conference), Professor Hamida Skandrani ( University of Manouba, Chair of the LIGUE laboratory), and Dr Malek Sghaier ( Lecturer, Opening the ceremony)

This Fourth Edition of The LIGUE Conference was also an occasion to celebrate the 20th  anniversary of the Laboratory LIGUE to witch the Bournemouth took part.

Team BU (Sangeeta Khorana, Ediz Akcay, Kaouther Kooli, Hiroko Oe) and festive events : Christmas in Tunis and the 20th anniversary of the LIGUE laboratory

This year’s conference took a multidisciplinary perspective to provide insight from marketing, management, accounting, finance and corporate governance on key issues challenging organisations. In addition to the issues of sustainability, other themes were explored providing insight on issues challenging the future of organisations. This conference is supported by several organisations i.e. The University of Manouba, Bournemouth University, the Associations for the Promotion of Innovation & Quality (APIQ) la quality, Tunisia), the Academy of Marketing B2B Marketing Special Interest Group.

In addition to the plenary sessions held on the morning of the 6th December 2019, interesting papers were presented and discussed during the two-day conference. Best papers are being selected for the review process of ranked journals (ABS, CNRS, FNEJ, ABCD).

Professor Michael Baker (Editor of the Journal of Customer Behaviour and Social Business), Professor David Lichtendhal, Editor of the Journal of Business to Business Marketing, Dr David Lindridge (Editor of Qualitative Market Research- an International Journal), Professor Hajj Nekka (Editor of RISO ), Professor Khaled Hussainey and Professor Aziz Jaafar (Editors of the Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting), Professor Nadia Albu (Editor of Journal of Accounting And Management Information System), Professor Han Donker and Dr. Saif Zahir (Editor of International Journal Of Corporate Governance), Dr Elise Penalva Icher (Editor of ROR), Prof Olivier Joffre and Stephane Tebuq (Editors of Recherche et cas en sciences de gestion).











On behalf of Bournemouth University, the Academy of Marketing B2B marketing special interest group, our special partner the LIGUE laboratory, I would like to express my gratitude to their dedication to enhance and support academic research not only in the UK but also in Tunisia.

The conference also involved practitioners in many ways i.e. workshops and presentations. I would like to express my gratitude to all the organisations that have supported this event, special thanks go to Sartex (from the Tunisian Textile and Clothing industry), PREMIUM Multiservices, Institut Francais, Justtech Links to the Future.- PMF, Authentika and the American Chamber of Commerce Centre Chapter.

Mrs Jasenka Lutjik, American Chamber of Commerce Centre Chaptre (Tunisia)

Please find below a few examples of this conference’s achievements :

  1. A plenary session with key speech from Professor Sangeeta Khorana, Bournemouth University, addressing the future of international trade in the era of blockchain and bitcoins and Professor Hajj Nekka, Angers University, (France)   of Human Resource Management in the era of societal transformations: a critical view Moderator
Professor Sangeeta Khorana (Bournemouth University), Professor Wafa Khilf, chairing the plenary session, Toulouse Business School, Spain, Professor Hajj Nekka (Angers University, France)

2-A plenary session organised by Dr Kaouther Kooli and focusing on the Textile and Clothing industry. Bournemouth University, the University of Manouba and the University of Florence have established the on-going global debate on the pollution caused by the global textile and clothing industry as featured by so many international conferences e.g. the Sustainable Apparel and Textile Conference that will be held in Amsterdam in April 2020, the International Conference on Global Textile Industry, Regulatory Standards and Regulation in London in January 2020.















This session provided insight on sustainability in the textile and clothing industry and involved academics and practitioners:

  • A young team including Nour Jmour, chemical engineer and Malek Zaguia, director of Communication both represented Sartex, one of the most important players in Africa in the textile and clothing industry with more than 5000 employees. They provided insight on the Sustainability activities performed by Sartex.
Malek Zaguia, Director of Communication and Nour Jmour, Engineer (SARTEX)


  • Professor Patrizia Zagnioli from the University of Florence (Italy), gave insight on the sustainability activities performed in Prato, the second biggest district of Textile and clothing industry in the world and the first in Europe.
Professor Patrizia Zagnoli, the University of Florence.
  • Dr Hiroko Oe presented the potential of implementations of ICT to the B2B and B2C relationships. She emphasised the positive impact of ICT in enhancing the collaboration between businesses and consumers in the globalised era. She also added that in sustaining the small and medium sized textile firms, more active discussions on how to design roadmaps in responding to the UN Sustainable Development Goals are important.
Dr Hiroko Oe, Bournemouth University


  • Professor Hamida Skandrani, Dr Kaouther Kooli, addressed the cultural influence on the implementation of the UN sustainability goals, from the perspective of the Tunisian textile and clothing industry. This presentation also involved Ana Paula Teixeira, a BU postgraduate student that contributed to the data collection during her internship in the summer 2019.
Professor Hamida Skandrani, University of Manouba and Dr Kaouther Kooli, Bournemouth University


This session was very successful and gave an international perspective on the issues of sustainability in the textile and clothing industry. Research papers and research funding proposals are being developed based on very rich information produced in this session. Potential partners from practice and from academia have been identified and initial contacts have been made.

In addition to this session, papers addressing sustainability issues in different contexts have been presented during the two days.

Ediz Akcay, Bournemouth University.

As the Chair of the Academy of Marketing B2B Marketing special interest group, Dr Kaouther Organised an insightful session on how B2B marketers reach customers in the era of GDPR. Is GDPR as relevant for Tunisia as for the UK? Yes definitely. A video conference was organised with very strong contribution from Bournemouth University.Professor Sangeeta Khorana commented about the outcomes of the discussion. The session was facilitated in Tunisia by Dr Hiroko Oe, Ediz Akcay and Dr Kaouther Kooli. In the UK (EBC), the session was facilitated by Dr Elvira Bolat, Dr Mili Shrivastava and Dr Danny Liang. As well as constituting a proof that it is possible to run a Carbone zero conference, this session provided interesting and deep insight into how each marketer approached the issue of GDPR.The General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR) is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy for all individual citizens of the European Union and the European Economic Area. It also addresses the transfer of personal data outside the EU and EEA areas GDPR present new challenges for B2B firms in both countries. In the UK, businesses have to comply with the regulation when building their databases and contacted new customers. Although Tunisia is not the EU, most of its international trade is done with the EU. In addition the Tunisian legal framework emphasise GDPR as a key issue for organisations in Tunisia (details here). B2B marketers from Tunisia and the UK met together via video conference to discuss and share views on how GDPR is affecting the way they reach potential customers.

Professor Sangeeta Khorana commented about the outcomes of the discussion. The session was facilitated in Tunisia by Dr Hiroko Oe, Ediz Akcay and Dr Kaouther Kooli. In the UK (EBC), the session was facilitated by Dr Elvira Bolat, Dr Mili Shrivastava and Dr Danny Liang.

As well as constituting a proof that it is possible to run a Carbone zero conference, this session provided interesting and deep insight into how each marketer approached the issue of GDPR.

Video Conference: How B2B marketers reach their customers in the era of GDPR?
Participant from Tunisia

Malek Zaguia, Sartex

Nour Jmour, Sartex

Nawal Ayadi, Paris Dauphine

Nebil Belaam, Emrhod Consulting

Nizar Nouiri, Factory 619

Participants from the UK

David John, Regional Manager, Eriks (Confirmed)

Timothy Foxx Neal, Digital Marketing Executive, Squire Technology (Confirmed)

Pauline Dean, Procurement Category Manager, BU

Fred Fowler, Founder, Core Computers. (Confirmed)

Ana Paula Teixeira, free lance Digital B2B marketer.

 4-Professor Salma Damak (University of Carthage, Tunisia) and Professor Samir Trabelsi (Brock University, Canada)organised a very interesting session on

Governance and financial transparency of local authorities.

In the presence of elected representatives of the local authorities, the session was dedicated to governance and financial transparency. Pr Damak presented the Tunisian regulatory framework for the management of local authorities and insisted on the need to comply with international accounting standards for financial reporting for public entities (IPSAS)

Pr Samir exposed the challenges of local governance in a moving context especially for a country in political transition phase. He proposed some recommendations in order to improve the governance of local communities while preserving local specificities.

Professor Samir Trabelsi, Brock University, Canada Professor Salma Damak, University of Carthage, Tunisia

5- Professor Wafa Khlif, Toulouse Business School, Spain, organised a special session on critical thinking and the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Pr Khlif exposed the various skills that we need in order to be able to think critically (observation, analysis, interpretation, reflection, evaluation, inference, explanation, problem solving, and decision making)

Professor Wafa Khlif, Toulouse Business School, Spain

6 – Last but not least, a visit to Sartex was arranged the day after the conference. Professor Hamida Skandrani, Professor Sangeeta Khorana, Professor Patrizia Zagnoli and Dr Kaouther Kooli met with Mr Mounir Zarrad, Mr Ibrahim Zarrad, Mr Malek Zaguia and Ms Nour Jmour.

After a guided tour of the premises and the water plant, a meeting was held at Sartex to discuss future collaborations on research, education and bids for research funding.


Dr Kaouther Kooli, Mr Mounir Zarrad and Professor Sangeeta Khorana, Mr Malek Zaguia and Professor Patrizia Zagnoli and Mr Ibrahim Zarrad, tour and meeting at Sartex.

Finally, Dr Hiroko Oe and Ediz Akcay, academics from Bournemouth University, including ECRs, have the opportunity to undertake guest editing work for ABS ranked journals.

The special issues of all the journals supporting the event will be promoted at Bournemouth University and submissions will be welcomed.

If you need further information, please feel free to contact Kaouther Kooli :

in the meantime, special thanks go  to Professor Hamida Skandrani, Professor Salama Damak,  the big boss Dr Hanen Moalla and Dr Rihab Zorii for their dedication before, during and after the conference.

Dr Rihab Zorii and Professor Hamida Skandrani




Professor Hamida Skandrani (University of Manouba and Chair of the LIGUE laboratory) and Professor Salma Damak (University of Carthage) happily supporting each other before going live on one of the national radios (RTCI Chaine Internationale) to promote the conference.


For more pictures, please join us on :

Looking forward to receiving your feedback and to updating you on the next conference.

Dr Kaouther Kooli

Principal Academic in Marketing

Business School, Bournemouth University



International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research

ICTHR has recently been re-approved for another three years. If your research is in (or partly overlapping with) tourism or hospitality or related subjects such as events and leisure, join with other researchers in this centre.

What does membership involve?

  • addition of your details to the ICTHR website,
  • addition to the ICTHR email list, giving you news and updates from the centre, for example on meetings, seminars and workshops.

What does it give you?

  • collaboration across BU with other tourism and hospitality researchers,
  • workshops and seminars relevant to your research,
  • use of the centre membership, e.g. on grant applications as appropriate.

Simply email Adam Blake to be included.

Congratulations to Dr. Pratik Adhikary

Congratulations to Dr. Pratik Adhikary on the fifth (and final paper) from his PhD in the Faculty of Health & Social Sciences. This latest paper ‘Support networks in the Middle East & Malaysia: A qualitative study of Nepali returnee migrants’ experiences’ was recently published in the International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health [1].

This is one of the few studies focusing on the support networks of Nepali migrant worker in the Middle East and Malaysia.  The previous four papers have focused more on living conditions and working conditions of migrant workers as well as occupational health and safety abroad [2-5].



  1. Adhikary P, van Teijlingen E. (2019) Support networks in the Middle East & Malaysia: A qualitative study of Nepali returnee migrants’ experiences’ – International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health  9(2): 31-35.
  2. Adhikary P, van Teijlingen E., Keen S. (2019) Workplace accidents among Nepali male workers in the Middle East and Malaysia: A qualitative study, Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health 21(5): 1115–1122.
  3. Adhikary P, Sheppard, Z., Keen S., van Teijlingen E. (2018) Health and well-being of Nepalese migrant workers abroad, International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care 14(1): 96-105.
  4. Adhikary, P., Sheppard, Z., Keen, S., van Teijlingen, E. (2017) Risky work: Accidents among Nepalese migrant workers in Malaysia, Qatar and Saudi, Health Prospect 16(2): 3-10.
  5. Adhikary P., Keen S., van Teijlingen, E. (2011) Health Issues among Nepalese migrant workers in Middle East. Health Science Journal 5: 169-175.

BU academic appointed Editor of International Journal

Dr Ian Jones, from the Department of Sport and Event Management, has taken on a role as Managing Editor of the international journal ‘Leisure Studies’. The journal, which has been established for over 35 years, publishes theoretically informed critical analyses of a wide range of topics that constitute leisure as a subject field – including sport and physical activity, the arts, tourism, cultural, informal and virtual activities, and urban and rural recreation. His appointment continues a long standing connection between the university and the leisure studies, with BU often cited as a focal point for the subject.

Discussion seminar ‘Moving from Multi-Channel to Omni-Channel Retailing’ 😇 is on the way! 6th February, 2020, 11:00-12:00. Venue: EB305

We will have a discussion seminar with the guest lecturers, Ms Ana Teixeira (business consultant) and Dr Yasuyuki Yamaoka (business consultant, researcher of the Open University of Japan) on the theme of ‘Moving from Multi-Channel to Omni-Channel Retailing’. This session is the fourth ‘spin-out’ event from DEEP TRANSFORMATIONS AND THE FUTURE OF ORGANIZATIONS (6-7 December 2019).

The internet and digital technologies have significantly transformed the retailing strategies and markets last few decades, specifically, the research theme of the online sales channels have attracted researchers and practitioners, and we have developed implications in the focus of multi-channel strategies. Recently, especially in line with the boosting of the digital natives’ power and their inclination towards SNS platforms, businesses have also designed marketing strategies concentrating on SNS based activities. In doing so, multichannel has been considered as the design, deployment, and marketing platforms combining different channels by which the businesses interact and collect consumers’ voices and wants to enhance their business opportunities.

The concept of multichannel and its experience has been already established in the business context. Even traditional firms have been implemented the firm website, blogs, and emailing list as the interactive tool. Some firms have collaborated with the influencers to enhance their messages with the positive impact as an effective method in marketing behaviour. Based on the current mature situation, it is getting more important to understand what  omni-channel means and can bring about.

Omni-channel customer service aims to provide a seamless customer experience across multiple sales channels and there the concept of ‘integrating sales channels’ as a ubiquitous experience for the customers. The core theme for omni-channle is not only providing a holistic experience but also it can enable stressless and significant customer services from the service provider side. To realise the harmonious experience for both customers and businesses, the strategic implementation of ICT is the critical key.

This session will provide unique viewpoints focusing on the theme of potential and challenge of omni-channel. Also, this session will discuss the theme in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as ‘Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure’ and ’Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals’.

This session also aligns with BU2025 strategic investment areas (SIAs), Simulation & Visualisation and Assistive Technology.

The BU ECRs, PhD researchers, and MSc students are welcome to this session.

The session will be facilitated by Dr Hiroko Oe and an ECR, Ediz Akcay. Mr. Gideon Adu-Gyamfi (MSc International Management) will also contribute as a discussant.

*For more details, please email to

New midwifery paper CMMPH

Congratulations to Dr. Luisa Cescutti-Butler and Prof. Sue Way in the Centre for Midwifery, Maternal & Perinatal Health (CMMPH) on the publication of their latest research article.  This new paper called ‘The experience of student midwives being taught newborn infant physical examination (NIPE) as an extracurricular activity at a university in the UK: A descriptive survey study’ has been accepted by Nurse Education in Practice [1].  The paper went online pre-publication earlier this week.


Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen


HSS January Lunch Time Seminar

Join us today 15 January 2020 for the HSS Lunch Time Seminar Series

1-2pm in B226


Presentations by:

Sue Green, Living with an Enteral Tube

Roger Baker, Developing the Emotional Processing Paradigm

Hina Tariq, Development and Validation of Contracture Assessment Screening Tool

Having Problems with Home Deliveries? We need more staff to complete our Campus Delivery Survey

Research indicates there is a high carbon footprint associated with missed parcel deliveries to the home due to repeat courier visits and personal mileage to collect parcels. An innovative solution is work place delivery where a work place reception receives parcels and a small payment for this service. At large organisations, like a University, this could significantly reduce van mileage and be economically viable. Our study will explore views on this option and use data from a questionnaire to analyse business models to understand financial viability and savings in greenhouse gas emissions.

The research is being undertaken by Bournemouth University and University of Southampton as part of a project funded by Southampton City Council (SCC) and has the support of Neil Smith (BU Sustainability Manager).

You can take the survey by clicking on this link:

The questionnaire is completely confidential and will take approximately 10 minutes to complete. Once you fully complete the survey, if you provide your contact email address, you will be entered into the prize draw to win one of ten £25 on-line shopping vouchers.

More information can be found if you click on the survey link, alternatively contact Professor Janet Dickinson (

SURE Conference 2020 : Encourage your students

The SURE (Showcasing Undergraduate Research Excellence) conference is returning for its 5th year, taking place on the 18th March 2020.​

You can encourage your dissertation students and/or students whose work you have marked already to submit a 250 words abstract to the SURE conference with the deadline of 20th January.  Work can be from individuals or groups (including alumni students) but must be undergraduate. Further information can be found here .

This also provides a great opportunity for the students to be considered for the British Conference of Undergraduate Research (BCUR) which enables the students to showcase their research inside parliament at annual Posters in Parliament event. Further details can be found here .

The last Christmas present

“On the twelfth day of Christmas ….” the editor  of the Journal of Health Research Ms Sunanta Wongchalee informed us that our paper ‘Silicone use in Nepali transgender women: The hazards of beauty’ has been accepted for publication [1].  That is nice belated Christmas present to receive on January 6th and a good start of the New Year.  The paper is written by FHSS’s Dr. Pramod Regmi and Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen with Sanjeev Raj Neupane in Nepal.  This is the second paper from this unique study on transgender women in Nepal, the first one was published last year in BMJ Open [2].


  1. Regmi, P., van Teijlingen, E.,, Neupane, S. (2020) Silicone use in Nepali transgender women: The hazards of beauty, Journal of Health Research (accepted)
  2. Regmi, P., van Teijlingen, E., Neupane, S., Marahatta, S. (2019) Hormone use among Nepali transgender women: a qualitative study, BMJ Open 9: e030464. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030464.


Nepal’s migrant workers & risk at the workplace

For nearly a decade BU researchers have published widely about the hazards and risk of Nepali migrant workers in Asia and the Middle East [1-9].  Despite the fact that most migrant workers end up in semi-skilled and unskilled jobs in their host countries, only a minority report poor working environments.  For example, in Pratik Adhikary’s PhD study in FHSS only just over a fifth of migrant workers reported that their work environment in the Middle East or Malaysia was poor or very poor [4].  This relatively high level of satisfaction appears to seems contradict reports in local media on the risks associated with Nepali migrants working abroad, especially focusing on the football world cup in Qatar [7], official reports that many hundreds of bodies of dead Nepali migrants return home every year [10], and the fact that many of these Nepali migrant workers end up doing the jobs the local populations finds too dirty, dangerous and demeaning (colloquially referred to as 3D-jobs).  Why do so many who travel abroad take to do risky, dirty and otherwise undesirable jobs, but still assess their working environment as not too bad?

More theoretical papers on the drivers of migration have referred to many interconnected factors and links [11-12].  Local drivers in Nepal include poverty, lack of employment opportunities, having a history of work-related migration, a growing culture of migration (i.e. it becomes more or less an expectation) and many more.  One local element that is perhaps too easily ignored is that many Nepali migrant workers would have ended up in dirty, dangerous and demeaning jobs at home too.  And the risk, on for example building sites in Nepal might be even greater than that in Qatar or elsewhere in the Middle East as some of the photos below illustrate.  These photos of an accident involving an external building lift were taken today on a building site in Kathmandu.  












  1. Adhikary P., Keen S., van Teijlingen E. (2011) Health Issues among Nepalese migrant workers in Middle East. Health Science Journal 5: 169-75.
  2. Adhikary, P, Sheppard, Z., Keen, S., van Teijlingen, E. (2017) Risky work: accidents among Nepalese migrant workers in Malaysia, Qatar & Saudi Arabia, Health Prospect 16(2): 3-10.
  3. Simkhada, P.P., Regmi, P.R.van Teijlingen, E., Aryal, N. (2017) Identifying the gaps in Nepalese migrant workers’ health and well-being: A review of the literature. Journal of Travel Medicine, 24 (4).
  4. Adhikary P, Sheppard, Z., Keen S., van Teijlingen E. (2018) Health and well-being of Nepalese migrant workers abroad, International Journal of Migration, Health & Social Care 14(1): 96-105
  5. Regmi, P.van Teijlingen, E.Mahato, P.Aryal, N., Jadhav, N., Simkhada, P., Zahiruddin, Q.S., Gaidhane, A. (2019) The Health of Nepali Migrants in India: A Qualitative Study of Lifestyles and Risks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16 (19).
  6. Aryal, N., Regmi, P.R., Faller, E.M., van Teijlingen, E., Khoon, C.C., Pereira, A., Simkhada, P. (2019) Sudden cardiac death and kidney health related problems among Nepali migrant workers in Malaysia. Nepal Journal of Epidemiology, 9 (3), 788-791.
  7. Adhikary P, van Teijlingen E., Keen S. (2019) Workplace accidents among Nepali male workers in the Middle East and Malaysia: A qualitative study, Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health 21(5): 1115–1122.
  8. Regmi, P., van Teijlingen, E., Mahato, P., Aryal, N., Jadhav, N., Simkhada, P., Syed Zahiruddin, Q., Gaidhane, A., (2019) The health of Nepali migrants in India: A qualitative study of lifestyles and risks, Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health 16(19), 3655; doi:10.3390/ijerph16193655.
  9. Regmi, P., Aryal, N., van Teijlingen, E., Adhikary, P. (2019) Nepali migrant workers and the need for pre-departure training on mental health: a qualitative study, Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health
  10. Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of Nepal. (2018) Labour migration for employment: a status report for Nepal: 2015/2016 – 2016/2017. In. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Labour and Employment.
  11. Van Hear, N., Bakewell, O., Long. K. (2018) Push-pull plus: reconsidering the drivers of migration, Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 44:6, 927-944, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1384135
  12. Iqbal, M., Gusman, Y. (2015) Pull and Push Factors of Indonesian women migrant workers from Indramayu (West Java) to work abroad. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(5): 167