On 9 November 2018, Professor Dinusha Mendis of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy & Management (CIPPM), hosted and led an Expert Meeting on the Intellectual Property (IP) Implications of 3D Printing at the European Commission, Brussels.
The Expert Meeting was hosted as part of the European Commission funded project on the Study into IP Implications on the Development of Industrial 3D Printing, which is being led by Professor Dinusha Mendis. Dr. Julie Robson (Co-Investigator) of the Faculty of Management and Mr. Dukki Hong (Research Assistant, PhD Candidate Law) were other project team members from BU who also participated in the expert meeting.
The expert meeting included invitees from the industrial, policy and academic sectors thereby drawing on views from key stakeholders in this field. Representative organisations included the EU Intellectual Property Office, European Patent Office, CECIMO, Materialise, HP, Prodintec amongst others. Amongst the academics invited, Dr. Marc Mimler (Member of Advisory Board) of CIPPM was also in attendance.
The EU-funded project led by Professor Mendis (Principal Investigator) consists of other UK and European partners including University of Glasgow, Scotland; Added Scientific Ltd UK, Technopolis Group Vienna Austria, University of Lapland, Finland and Boehmert & Boehmert, Munich Germany. The project is currently in progress and is due for completion in May 2019.
The project aims to provide an overview of the past and current industrial applications of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in selected sectors whilst identifying potential challenges and opportunities in need of clarification. In essence, the Study will aim to formulate a clear picture of the Intellectual Property (IP) framework that could enhance the competitiveness of the AM sector in Europe.
The current work builds on the Commissioned project on the Intellectual Property Implications of 3D Printing, which Professor Mendis led for the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) between 2013-2015 and the AHRC/CREATe project which Professor Mendis led between 2015-2017.
Regulating 3D printing has been the focus of attention recently, with the European Parliament adopting a resolution put forward by the Legal Affairs Committee to regulate 3D printing from the perspective of intellectual property (IP) and civil liability. The resolution was adopted in July 2018.
Around the same time, the European Commission commissioned a project exploring the Intellectual Property (IP) implications of the Development of 3D Printing signalling its commitment to this area. This project which commenced in May 2018 is being led by Professor Dinusha Mendis of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy & Management (CIPPM) at Bournemouth University.
The current work builds on the Commissioned project on the Intellectual Property Implications of 3D Printing, which Professor Mendis led for the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) between 2013-2015 and the AHRC/CREATe project which Professor Mendis led between 2015-2017.
To speak about these developments and issues, Professor Mendis was interviewed by The Guardian for the ‘Chips with Everything’ programme recently. The link to the podcast can be found here (relevant segment from 15.10 minutes onwards).
Professor Mendis was also invited by CHANEL to deliver a presentation to their legal team about the IP implications of 3D Printing in the fashion and consumer industry. In doing so, Professor Mendis drew on the research findings from her project ‘Going for Gold: Intellectual Property Implications of 3D Scanning, 3D Printing and Mass Customisation of Ancient and Modern Jewellery’ which was funded by the AHRC (contract with CREATe, University of Glasgow) and was completed in August 2017.
Dr. Dinusha Mendis, Associate Professor in Law and Co-Director of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM) presented a poster at the 107th Society of Legal Scholars Conference 2016 capturing the research carried out for the Going for Gold Project.
The AHRC-funded ‘Going for Gold’ project explores the intellectual property implications of 3D scanning, 3D printing and mass customisation of ancient and modern jewellery, with a particular focus on the cultural and business sectors. In so doing, the project considers the copyright, design, licensing and contractual issues faced by key stakeholders in these industries.
The poster (illustration below) showcases the research carried out in the cultural sector (ancient jewellery), in collaboration with museums and points out the challenges faced by the museums as well as the opportunities which lie ahead in embracing this technology.
The research is led by Dr. Mendis in collaboration with Museotechniki Ltd and Uformia Ltd and the research team will produce Practice Guidelines on the adoption of 3D scanning, 3D printing and mass customisation within the cultural and business sectors.
This project builds on the research carried out for the UK Intellectual Property Office Commissioned Project on the IP implications of 3D Printing which was completed in 2015, leading to the publication of three reports.
In January 2015, Dr. Dinusha Mendis, Associate Professor in Law and Co-Director of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM) in the Faculty of Media and Communications was awarded a period of research leave funded by the Fusion Investment Fund which commenced on 1 January 2015. The study leave was granted to further Dr. Mendis’ research into the digital aspects of Copyright Law and the Intellectual Property (IP) Implications of 3D Printing.
Since 1 January 2015, Dr. Mendis has held appointments as Visiting Fellow at University of Bocconi in Italy and as Lord Provost Fellow at University of Tasmania in Australia. For further information about the collaborative work carried out by Dr. Mendis during this time, please see here (BU Research Blog post dated 13 March 2015).
Dr. Mendis will complete her research leave in July 2015 having spent two months as a Visiting Scholar at Stanford Law School, Stanford University California.
During her time as a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Dr. Mendis was involved in working with Professor Mark Lemley of Stanford Law School, to further her research into the intellectual property implications of 3D printing. Sponsored by Professor Lemley, Dr. Mendis utilised the time at Stanford to complete two research papers (to be published in Autumn 2015) and collaborate with IP experts from University of California, Berkeley; Emory University; Georgia Tech University and Indiana University in taking forward a project in the area of 3D printing and intellectual property implications.
The Research Leave was made possible by the generous support of Bournemouth University’s Fusion Investment Fund which in turn led to the Visiting appointments for which Dr. Mendis is very grateful.
The appointments have all proved to be very productive and rewarding in taking forward the research on the IP implications of 3D printing. The final appointment, which involved being a Visiting Scholar at Stanford Law School was a very positive experience – and will be an unforgettable one.
On Monday 9 June, Dr. Dinusha Mendis of the Law Department hosted an event on ‘3D Printing: Understanding the Technology and Law’ at Bournemouth University’s Festival of Learning in collaboration with the Media School and School of Science and Technology.
The event which was held from 5-7 pm on 9th June 2014 included three short presentations and a tour of the 3D printing facilities at Bournemouth University.
The presentations focused on the various aspects of the technology and law relating to 3D Printing and were delivered by Dr. Leigh McLoughlin of the Media School; Mr. Gary Underwood from the School of Science and Technology and Dr. Dinusha Mendis of the Law Department, Business School.
Following the talks, the attendees were taken on a hands-on tour of the 3D printing facilities at Talbot Campus, Bournemouth University – and did not leave the event empty-handed. Each attendee was given a 3D printed momento to take home – as seen in the picture!
The event was enjoyable and very well attended – generating a wait list after the allocated tickets were sold out. Apart from that, the Festival of Learning provided the perfect platform to showcase the research relating to the legal and technological implications of 3D Printing. With a hands-on tour planned, it also provided the opportunity to engage the attendees in a more light-hearted manner.
The Festival of Learning has also acted as a spring board for a further event in the area of 3D Printing and Intellectual Property Law which will once again be hosted by Dr. Dinusha Mendis at Bournemouth University later this year.
The following video clip captures the essence of the Festival of Learning and provides an insight into the many exciting events which took place during 9-15 June 2014 at Bournemouth University.
Dr Melanie Klinkner shares her experience of undertaking research in Cambodia…
Perhaps it is due to a genetic predisposition to embrace the continental Kaffeehaus tradition of discussing matters for hours on end or simply because of an affinity to the Socratic dialogue, interviewing has been a key component of my research. It would be wrong to say that I am not nervous before each interview or don’t question my methodological approach, but, in general, interviews have been exciting, worthwhile and a superb way to network. I keep being amazed by the generosity of participants in giving up their time, going to the trouble of meeting me, sharing their experience and expertise, sending relevant information or answering follow-up questions.
The experiences from a fieldtrip to Cambodia epitomises the fun of qualitative research for me. On arrival at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia outside the capital Phnom Penh, I was met by the then head of PR who had not only organised an interview schedule with judges, prosecutors and defence lawyers but also offered me a tour of the (then not quite complete) building. Sure, this might have been part of their general public relations efforts, but it was me who benefitted from meeting these individuals. I was the lucky one sitting in the office of a Cambodian participant, with a translator present, conducting an interview whilst feeling strangely observed by the statue of an elusively smiling Khmer head on the top of a cupboard. I was similarly impressed with one interviewee who was on a business trip to Bangkok whilst I visited Phnom Penh, but was still happy to meet me in a Hotel lobby in the centre of Bangkok an hour after my plane from Phnom Penh touched down on Suvanarbhumi Airport. It would also be amiss to forget the other impressions gathered on this trip. The taxi driver who took me to the Extraordinary Chambers each day and dropped me at the Killing fields on the outskirts of Phnom Penh shared his experiences from the Khmer Rouge area. A young TukTuk driver and English language teacher practiced his English by telling me about the education system. Whilst not explicitly relevant to the research – implicitly this information is priceless.
It is with some sadness that I read of the difficulties the Extraordinary Chambers are facing with allegations of corruption, lack of funding, political meddling, the age and death of defendants hampering its progress. Surely Cambodia and the Cambodian people deserve better. Perhaps one day (when the children are older) I will be able to return to Cambodia for an interdisciplinary study to further our understanding as to the forensic, legal but also cultural significance the displayed human remains have within Cambodian Society – they are a fascinating substrate for research. For now, I have one small regret: I should have bought a sculpture of a Khmer head with its elusive smile to put on my book shelve at home.
The Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM) together with the Law Department was delighted to host the 8th GikII Conference which was held on 16-17 September 2013. The conference was chaired by Dr. Dinusha Mendis, Co-Director CIPPM and Professor Lilian Edwards, Deputy Director CREATe, University of Glasgow and Professor of Internet Law at University of Strathclyde.
The conference has previously been hosted at the Universities of Edinburgh, Oxford, Amsterdam, London, Gothenborg and East Anglia. This year’s conference dubbed the ‘beach edition’ did not fail to live up to its name – GikII. Invited speakers presented papers focusing on present and future issues in the field of law and technology. The papers included a consideration of the legal issues surrounding rights of robots, cyber security, 3D printing, privacy, genetic testing, autonomous cars, algorithms, fan fiction and a lot more. Full details of the programme can be found here.
A write-up about the conference was published in the New Scientist on 16 September 2013 which further raised the profile of this hugely popular event in the field of law and technology. The article authored by Richard Fisher of the New Scientist and titled ‘Future Law: Can you be slandered by a robot?’ opened up with the statement that “in a world awash with robots, teleports and self-driving cars, you are going to need a good lawyer”!
A glimpse into the discussion which took place over the two days was captured on twitter and published on Storify. The discussion which took place on Day 1 can be found here and the discussion on Day 2 can be accessed here.
A short video about the conference as explained by the Co- organisers Dr. Dinusha Mendis and Professor Lilian Edwards can be accessed here.
Dr Melanie Klinkner studies the use of forensic science for investigation and prosecution of atrocities such as war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Here she talks about the International Day of the Disappeared.
Today serves as a reminder of the number of people around the world who are missing as a result of armed conflicts. We remember the families who face a daily struggle to understand what has happened to their loved one.
Enforced disappearances have been and continue to be used by oppressive regimes in an attempt to dispose of political opponents secretly and to instil fear in the population. Article 2 of the Convention for the Protection for all Persons from Enforced Disappearance (2006) defines disappearances as ‘the arrest, detention, abduction or any other form of deprivation of liberty by agents of the State or by persons or groups of persons acting with authorisation, support or acquiescence of the State, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of liberty or by concealment of the fate or whereabouts of the disappeared person, which place such a person outside the protection of the law’.
The Red Cross work tirelessly to reunite families where possible and organisations such as the International Commission on Missing Person support identification of bodies.
In the aftermath of conflict and gross human rights violations, there is an overwhelming need of the families is to know the truth about the fate of their loved ones and, where the worst has happened, to receive their human remains as an absolute proof of death and to facilitate burial and commemoration rituals.
This need is mirrored in international human rights and international humanitarian law development, which has advanced the recognition of victim rights of national or international crimes and human rights abuses. The Basic Principles encompass the need for victims and their families to know the truth about what happened to their loved ones and demands that the bodies of those disappeared are recovered, identified and buried.
Melanie works alongside Ian Hanson and Paul Cheetham in the School of Applied Sciences, who have developed standard operating procedures for forensic investigation of mass graves. These have been used internationally in judicial and humanitarian contexts, bringing those responsible for atrocity crimes to justice and providing much needed answers to families.
Read more about the Red Cross
Dr Melanie Klinkner’s profile
International Commission on Missing Persons
Copyright and the Regulation of Orphan Works, a report commissioned by the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) and co-authored by Dr. Marcella Favale, Dr. Fabian Homberg, Dr. Dinusha Mendis and Dr. Davide Secchi of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM) at Bournemouth University and Professor Martin Krestchmer of CREATe, University of Glasgow was launched at the Orphans and Images event at the Law Society in London. It took place on 2 July 2013. Marcella Favale and Fabian Homberg introduced by Professor Martin Kretschmer presented the report.
The event was sponsored by the Technology Strategy Board (TSB) and CREATe, the Research Council UK Centre for Copyright and New Business Models in the Creative Economy.
The report consisting of two Studies, included a comparative international review of actual and proposed orphan works legislation in several jurisdictions aimed at identifying key characteristics of orphan works licensing schemes and simulated rights clearance for six scenarios in order to identify pricing models in the studied jurisdictions.
A panel discussion chaired by The Honourable Mr. Justice Arnold followed the launch of the Report. The panel included Richard Boulderstone (British Library); Matthew Cope (Intellectual Property Office); David Hoffman (Editorial Photographers EPUK / Hoffman Photos), Dr. Ros Lynch (Copyright Hub), Professor Derek McAuley (University of Nottingham and TSB Connected Digital Economy Catapult) and Dr. Jeremy Silver (Bridgeman Art Library).
The event also provided an opportunity to launch the the research agenda of CREATe and to launch the CREATe working paper series. For more information, please see http://www.create.ac.uk/
The Report, titled ‘Copyright and the Regulation of Orphan Works: A Comparative Review of Seven Jurisdictions and a Rights Clearance Simulation’ can be accessed here
On Tuesday 11th June 2013, the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM) showcased its research as part of the Law Department’s Festival of Learning event. The Law event showcased placement opportunities for students; various law provisions at Bournemouth and research carried out by the Law Department – which included a CIPPM Stall. The Stall was divided into three sections: Experience, Learn and Connect. The event was attended by academics, legal practitioners and students.
Under the theme, ‘Experience’, CIPPM showed videos on copyright law produced in 2012 in the run up to the implementation of copyright exceptions recommended as part of the Hargreaves Review. Videos shown on the day also demonstrated Intellectual Property issues surrounding 3D printing and evidence based copyright.
As part of the ‘Learn’ theme, CIPPM showcased its members’ research publications. These varied from peer reviewed journal articles to commissioned reports and recently published monographs. The collection of high quality research publications was also reflective of the various areas of research that CIPPM members are involved in. It was also an opportunity for CIPPM’s PhD students to exhibit their research.
Apart from demonstrating CIPPM’s various involvements in the areas of IP law, the Festival of Learning was an opportunity to present a platform for future collaboration which was carried out under the ‘Connect’ theme.
By representing previous partnerships leading to successful research projects, those with an interest in research into IP law were invited to collaborate and join forces with CIPPM.
Keeping up with CIPPM’s cake-cutting tradition and in celebrating 20 years of Law at Bournemouth University, the event was brought to a close by cutting and eating a very large cake!
On 15-16th July 2013, Professor Ruth Soetendorp, Associate Director of the Business School’s Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management (CIPPM), will present a paper titled “Who Cares What Students Think about IP?” at the Seventh Annual Workshop of the European Intellectual Property Teacher’s Network (EIPTN) at University of Lisbon, Portugal. Details about the Conference can be found here
On 19th June 2013, Dr. Jesus Gonzalez will present on the “The Distinctive Function of Authorship” which will take place at Bournemouth University, Executive Business Centre Room EB302. The event will commence at 4 pm.
Dr. Dinusha Mendis, Senior Lecturer in Law and Co-Director of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management has featured in recent articles, interviews and guest talks for her research into 3D printing and its implications for Intellectual Property (IP) Laws.
Her research in this area led to an interview for the United Nations Agency, World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) Geneva, for their prestigious magazine the World Intellectual Property Review (WIPR). Dr. Mendis was featured in the article ‘The Shape of things to Come: 3D Printing’ published on 1 May 2013. In this article, Dr. Mendis suggests that in looking to the future and in adapting to 3D printing, businesses should look to market-driven business models—for example, by setting up an iTunes-style store for spare product parts, or by licensing 3D files more widely. It is important for businesses to ‘adapt’ to this new technology and ‘adopt’ new business models.
Also during the month of May, Dr. Mendis was invited by the Open Rights Group, London to write for their magazine ORGZine, on 3D Printing and its implications for IP Laws. The article titled ‘Unravelling 3D Printing and Intellectual Property Laws: From Napster to Thingiverse and Beyond‘ was published on 21 May 2013.
On the 28th May 2013, Dr. Mendis was invited to speak at the University of Glasgow, at an event organised by CREATe titled ‘Conversations in Copyright’. At this event, Dr. Mendis was invited to speak about her research into 3D Printing with a specific focus on copyright law.
At present, Dr. Mendis is in the process of authoring a paper on 3D Printing with a specific focus on copyright which will be published in autumn. She will also be presenting her research into 3D Printing and IP Law at the Festival of Learning on Thursday 6th June and Tuesday 11th June 2013.
Dr. Mendis is the author of ‘Clone Wars’: Episode 1 – The Rise of 3D Printing and its Implications for Intellectual Property Law’ which was published in a 3-star journal and was followed by an interview for the BBC Radio 5 Live in February 2013. In April 2013, Dr. Mendis spoke on the topic at the 28th BILETA Conference at the University of Liverpool and was interviewed by the organisers about her research in this area.
Dr. Justine Pila, Lecturer in Intellectual Property Law at University of Oxford and Senior Law Tutor at St. Catherine’s College will speak on ‘The Europeanisation of Intellectual Property Law: Towards a European Legal Methodology’ at the 2nd CIPPM Spring Lecture Series.
The Lecture will be held on Thursday 21 March 2013 in EB708 and will start at 6 pm with refreshments served from 5 pm onwards.
Dr. Pila’s main areas of research are copyright and patent law in all of their doctrinal, theoretical and historical aspects. She has published widely in this area. Her book titled ‘The Requirement for an invention in Patent Law’ was published by Oxford University Press in 2010. With Professor John Gardner she co-edits the two Oxford Legal Research Paper Series, in addition to serving as legal advisor to the Oxford Magazine. She also convenes the Law Faculty’s Intellectual Property subject group and teaches on all of its IP programmes, including the two FHS (undergraduate) IP options, the BCL option, and the Postgraduate Diploma in IP Law and Practice.
The lectures are free to attend, but places are limited, and admission to the building closes at 18:15. If you wish to reserve a place, please contact Mandy Lenihan.
Dr. Dinusha Mendis has published a paper on 3D Printing and its implications for Intellectual Property Law titled ‘“The Clone Wars”: Episode 1 – The Rise of 3D Printing and its implications for Intellectual Property Law: Learning Lessons from the Past?’ The paper was published in the European Intellectual Property Review in February 2013 (pp. 155-169).
In drawing parallels with the entertainment industry and online piracy, this paper highlights the challenges which will be faced by the current Intellectual Property (IP) laws as a result of 3D printing and suggests that rather than focus on stringent IP laws the future lies in adopting new business models in adapting to this new technology. To this effect, the paper suggests some recommendations for the future.
Following the publication of the paper, Dr. Mendis was interviewed by BBC 5Live ‘Outriders’ programme – a programme dedicated to exploring the frontiers of the web. The interview was broadcast on 19 February 2013 and is available here http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/pods (the relevant section of the interview can be accessed at 15.45 minutes of the programme).
In this interview Dinusha speaks to BBC’s Jamillah Knowles about her paper and the challenges which will be faced by intellectual property laws in the wake of 3D printing.
The annual series of the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management’s (CIPPM) http://www.cippm.org.uk/ Spring Lectures starts on Thursday 21 February 2013 at 6 pm.
Professor Hector MacQueen, Professor of Private Law at the University of Edinburgh will deliver the first lecture, titled “Ae fond kiss: A Private Matter?” on Thursday 21 February 2013.
Professor MacQueen has written extensively on Intellectual Property law and is author, co-author and editor of a number of books on Intellectual Property law. He was the Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of Edinburgh (1999-2003) and Director of the AHRC Centre for Studies in Intellectual Property and Technology Law (SCRIPT) (2002-2007). In 2010 Professor MacQueen took up an appointment as Scottish Law Commissioner (2010-2014).
CIPPM Spring Lectures take place at 18:00, in the Executive Business Centre, close to the Bournemouth Travel Interchange (89 Holdenhurst Road, BH8 8EB). The lectures are free to attend, but places are limited, and admission to the building closes at 18:15. If you wish to reserve a place, please contact Mandy Lenihan at ALenihan@bournemouth.ac.uk
For further information on forthcoming CIPPM Spring Lectures and for booking information see http://business.bournemouth.ac.uk/news/2013/jan/ne001-cippm-lectures-2013.html
You are warmly invited to attend a series of business law seminars being organised by a group of academics in the Department of Law researching in Business Regulation & Institutions, Trade & Entrepreneurship (cBRITE), who will be working closely with the Centre for Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth:
Stephen Copp “The codification of directors’ duties: raising or lowering standards?” 11.00 – 12.00pm Wednesday 5th December 2012 in PG142
Alison Cronin “White Collar Crime – Why the light touch? The case for a robust criminal law to reinforce ethical conduct in the commercial world” 1.00 – 2.00pm Wednesday 12th December 2012 in PG146
Sarah McKeown “A Common European Sales Law: Facilitating Cross-Border Trade for SMEs” 11.00 – 12.00pm Wednesday 19th December 2012 in PG142
For further details contact Dr Stephen Copp, Associate Professor, Department of Law, The Business School at firstname.lastname@example.org
Bournemouth University was host to an ESRC Festival of Social Science event on 8 November 2012. The one-day conference, organized by Professor Martin Kretschmer and colleagues from the Law School, sought to explore the complexities of developing empirical research to support public policy in domains such as copyright law. In attendance at the conference were stakeholders from the Intellectual Property Office UK, the Cabinet Office, law professionals and academics from around Europe. The day was structured around a series of panel discussions by representatives from policy, the media industry, and law, prompting lively debate around questions such as: ‘What is the status of qualitative research in policy decision making?’ and ‘How can we reconcile the differing legal and academic standards for evidence?’.
The conference was video recorded with the help of research assistants from the Media School and will be made available in full as a series of digital conference proceedings.
The conference was also an opportunity for Professor Kretschmer, Dr. Kris Erickson and Dr. Dinusha Mendis to present the findings of research they carried out during the IPO consultation on the Hargreaves Review of Intellectual Property. The research seeks to evaluate possible economic impacts of any future change to UK copyright law to permit parody, caricature and pastiche of existing works. Currently, parody is not explicitly permitted under UK copyright law. The authors hope that this type of empirical research will help to illuminate complex public policy questions and strengthen the role of academic research in the policy process.
Below you may view a detailed presentation of the research from the ESRC event.
Twelve months into her PhD, Law research student Ellie Smith has published an article entitled ‘Investigating Rape at the International Criminal Court: The Impact of Trauma’ in the Issues in International Criminal Justice Journal. Ellie’s current research focuses on the scope for narrative truth at the International Criminal Court, survivor perceptions of justice, and the nature of rehabilitation as a legal remedy for survivors of gross human rights violations. A second article is currently under review with the A-rated Journal of International Criminal Justice.
Ellie joined the University on a full-time studentship. She is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre on Human Rights, University of East London, and has 10 years of experience in the conduct of multi-disciplinary (legal and clinical) and intersectional research in the field of justice for victims of gross human rights violations, including for eight years as Lead Researcher for the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture. She is a member of the Victims’ Rights Working Group to the Coalition for the International Criminal Court, and has also served as a member of the Expert Advisory Panel to the British Home Office on the Trafficking of Women. Ellie achieved a Degree in law from Girton College, Cambridge University (1992) and a Masters Degree in Law from the London School of Economics (2000). She qualified as a solicitor in 1994.
You can access a copy of Ellie’s article online here: http://www.iccsn.com/IICJ2012.pdf