Congratulations to Professors Sara Ashencaen Crabtree and Jonathen Parker in the Faculty of Health & Social Sciences on the recent publication of their paper ‘‘Behaving like a Jakun!’ A case study of conflict, ‘othering’ and indigenous knowledge in the Orang Asli of Tasik Chini’ in the Journal of Sociology and Development . This paper reports on an ethnographic study of the indigenous Jakun Orang Asli in West Malaysia.
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
- Parker, J., Ashencaen Crabtree, S., Crabtree Parker, M., Crabtree Parker, I., 2019. ‘Behaving like a Jakun!’ A case study of conflict, ‘othering’ and indigenous knowledge in the Orang Asli of Tasik Chini. Journal of Sociology & Development, 3 (1):23-32.
Congratulations to FHSS’s Dr. Pramod Regmi on the publication of his recent qualitative paper ‘Parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on children’s sexual health education: a qualitative study in Makwanpur Nepal’ . The paper is co-authored by colleagues from Aberystwyth University.
This academic paper in an Open-Access journal, hence freely available to researchers, policy-makers, teachers, etc. in Nepal and elsewhere in the world. This Health Prospect publication is the latest in a series of publications focusing on sex education and sexual health in Nepal by Dr. Regmi [see 2-10].
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
Centre for Midwifery, Maternal & Perinatal Health (CMMPH)
- Acharya, DR, Thomas, M., Cann, R., Regmi, P.R., 2019. Parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on children’s sexual health education: a qualitative study in Makwanpur Nepal Health Prospect, 18(2): 1-6.
- Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E., Regmi, P., Bhatta, P., Ingham, R., Stone, N., 2015. Sexual health knowledge and risky sexual behaviour of Nepalese trekking guides. Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, 1 (4), 35-42.
- Acharya, D., Regmi, P., Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E., 2015. Modernisation and changes in attitudes towards sex and relationships in young people. In Wasti, S., Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E. (Eds.) The Dynamics in Health in Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal: Social Science Baha: 63-94.
- Regmi, P., Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E ., 2011. Dating and sex among emerging adults in Nepal. Journal of Adolescent Research, 26 (6), 675-700.
- Regmi, P., Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E., 2010. ‘…Boys remain prestigious, girls become prostitutes’: Socio-cultural context of relationships and sex among young people in Nepal. Global Journal of Health Science, 2 (1), 60-72.
- Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E., Regmi, P., Bhatta, P., 2010. Sexual relationship and condom use among male trekking guides in Nepal: A qualitative study. Culture Health & Sexuality, 12 (1), 45-58.
- Regmi, P., Simkhada P., van Teijlingen, E., 2010. ‘…There are too many naked pictures found on the net’: Factors encouraging premarital sex among young people in Nepal. Health Science Journal, 4 (3), 169-181.
- Regmi, P., Simkhada, P., Acharya, D., van Teijlingen, E., 2010. Barriers to sexual health services for young people in Nepal. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 28 (6), 619-627.
- Upreti, D., Regmi, P., Pant, P., Simkhada, P., 2009 Knowledge, attitude towards HIV and AIDS among Nepalese young people: A systematic review. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 7(4), 383-391.
- Regmi, P., Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E., 2008. Sexual and reproductive health status among young people in Nepal: opportunities and barriers for sexual health education and services utilisation. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 6(2), 245-256.
Yesterday the Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health published the final version of Dr. Pratik Adhikary’s paper ‘Workplace Accidents Among Nepali Male Workers in the Middle East and Malaysia: A Qualitative Study’ . This is the fourth paper originating from Pratik’s Ph.D. research conducted in the Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, the first three papers appeared in the period 2011-2018 [2-4].
The paper highlights that many Nepali men work in the Middle East and Malaysia and media reports and anecdotal evidence suggests they are at a high risk of workplace-related accidents and injuries for male Nepali workers. Pratik’s Ph.D. study used face-to-face interviews to explore the personal experiences of twenty male Nepali migrants of unintentional injuries at their place of work. His study found that almost half of study participants experienced work-related accident abroad. The Participants suggested that the reasons behind this are not only health and safety at work but also poor communication, taking risks by workers themselves, and perceived work pressure. Some participants experienced serious incidents causing life-long disability, extreme and harrowing accounts of injury but received no support from their employer or host countries.
The paper concludes that Nepali migrant workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries owing to a number of interrelated factors poor health and safety at work, pressure of work, risk taking practices, language barriers, and their general work environment. Both the Government of Nepal and host countries need to be better policing existing policies; introduce better legislation where necessary; ensure universal health (insurance) coverage for labour migrants; and improve preventive measures to minimize the number and severity of accidents and injuries among migrant workers.
- Adhikary P, van Teijlingen E., Keen S. (2019) Workplace accidents among Nepali male workers in the Middle East and Malaysia: A qualitative study, Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health 21(5): 1115–1122. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10903-018-0801-y
- Adhikary P., Keen S., van Teijlingen E (2011) Health Issues among Nepalese migrant workers in Middle East. Health Science Journal 5: 169-75. www.hsj.gr/volume5/issue3/532.pdf
- Adhikary, P, Sheppard, Z., Keen, S., van Teijlingen, E. (2017) Risky work: accidents among Nepalese migrant workers in Malaysia, Qatar & Saudi Arabia, Health Prospect 16(2): 3-10.
- Adhikary P, Sheppard, Z., Keen S., van Teijlingen E. (2018) Health and well-being of Nepalese migrant workers abroad, International Journal of Migration, Health & Social Care 14(1): 96-105. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJMHSC-12-2015-0052
Following the successful Bournemouth University’s visit to Vietnam as part of the Global Festival of Learning Great as highlighted in the Daily Echo, Thanh-Hang Dinh a FHSS MSc in Public Health graduate had an article accepted on her research dissertation. Her paper ‘Factors influencing engagement in premarital sex among Vietnamese young adults: a qualitative study’ was published ‘online first’ this week in the International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health.
The paper highlights the rising trend of sexual engagement among Vietnamese young adults in recent years, and its potential health consequences. In order to prevent such consequences and further promote health, an in-depth understanding of factors influencing young people to have premarital sex would be valuable. The qualitative analysis ‘generated’ six emergent themes: (a) desire as the ‘direct cause’; (b) the facilitators; (c) social changes; (d) media; (e) peer and (f) absence of family. The latter four themes are ‘indirect causes’ that influence through desire and the facilitators. The study concluded that there is a need for a reliable source of information to be tailor-designed to suit young people. Additionally, the stigma of talking about sex needs to be reduced to allow for more open discussions on sex and sexual health.
After completing her MSc at BU Thanh-Hang Dinh (known as Hana to her fellow students) started working at the famous Pasteur Institute Nha Trang in Vietnam.
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
Congratulations to Preeti Mahato in the Centre for Midwifery, Maternal & Perinatal Health (CMMPH) on the publication of a paper based on her Ph.D. research. Her paper ‘Birthing centres in Nepal: Recent developments, obstacles and opportunities’ can be found in the June 2016 edition of the Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM) . All articles in JAM are Open Access to ensure midwives and researchers in the poorest parts of Asia can freely access the scientific articles in the journal.
This literature review was appraised the relevant literature on birthing centres in Nepal, South Asia, and other similar settings. Preeti and her co-authors concluded that birthing centres in Nepal have the potential to improve both (a) the institutional delivery rate; and (b) the proportion of births that benefit from the presence of a skilled birth attendant (SBA). However, accessibility, socio-demographic characteristics, and cultural factors act as barriers to pregnant women attending birthing centres and hospital facilities.
Preeti’s Ph.D. is supervised by Dr. Catherine Angell and Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen in CMMPH and Prof. Padam Simkhada at Liverpool John Moores University. Padam is also Visiting Faculty at the Faculty of Health & Social Sciences (FHSS).
- Mahato, P., van Teijlingen, E., Simkhada, P., Angell, C. (2016) Birthing centres in Nepal: Recent developments, obstacles and opportunities, Journal of Asian Midwives 3(1): 17-30.
Today saw the publication of a paper analysing the long-term development of Nepal . It offers insight into Nepal’s position in the country’s demographic transition in relation to its nutrition transition. In traditional societies both fertility and mortality are high and in modern post-industrial society both are low.
The lead author Yagya Prasad Subedi is a Ph.D. student at the University of Aberdeen and his co-authors are based at Liverpool John Moores University (Prof. Padam Simkhada, who is also BU Visiting Faculty) and in the Centre for Midwifery, Maternal & Perinal Health (CMMPH) in the Faculty of Health and Social Sciences (Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen).
- Subedi, Y.P., Simkhada, P., van Teijlingen, E. (2016) Where is Nepal in the Demographic Transition within the wider context of the Nutrition transition? Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4: 155-166. The paper is freely available, click here!
Diabetes prevention and management in South Asia: A call for action
Today the International Journal of Food, Nutrition and Public Health accepted our paper Diabetes prevention and management in South Asia: A call for action for publication . The Public Health paper argues that is an urgent need to reduce the diabetes prevalence in South Asia through evidence-based interventions ranging from prevention and early detection to appropriate treatment and care. The authors suggest that a multi-sectorial collaboration across all stakeholders is necessary to raise awareness about diabetes, its prevention, treatment and care in the region. The paper, with Dr. Pramod Regmi as lead author, is co-authored with colleagues at the University of Oxford, the University of Otago (NZ), University of the West of England, and, Bournemouth University, including BU PhD student Folashade Alloh.
- Regmi, P.R., Kurmi, O., Aryal, N., Pant P.R., Banstola, A., Alloh, F., van Teijlingen, E. Diabetes prevention and management in South Asia: A call for action International Journal of Food Nutrition and Public Health (forthcoming).
Nepal birthing centre
On Friday the third cohort of UK volunteers will leave Heathrow as our education project ‘Mental Health Training for Community-based Maternity Providers in Nepal’ . Mental health issues are a seriously underfunded and understudied area in Nepal, and not just in the field of maternity care.  Our project is a collaboration between the Centre for Midwifery, Maternal & Perinatal Health (CMMPH), Tribhuvan University (Nepal’s oldest university) and Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU). The project receives funding from DFID, and is managed through THET and supported locally in Nepal by a charity Green Tara Nepal.
One of the three latest volunteers, BU Visiting Faculty and Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust midwife Jillian Ireland wrote about her forthcoming trainig visit (click here for Jillian’s blog). The other volunteers on this visit are midwife Andrea Lawrie from The Robert Gordon University/Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Aberdeen) and Dave Havelock, a mental health nurse specialising in high intensity therapy (IAP) from North Yorkshire.
Previous Bournemouth University Research Blogs (see here! and here! ) and blogs by one the earlier UK volunteers retired health visitor Ish Fawcett (click here!) have outlined details of our project. Bournemouth University has a great history of developing and delivering innovative education projects with the support of its Centre for Excellence in Learning (CEL).
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
- van Teijlingen, E., Simkhada, P., Devkota, B., Fanning, P., Ireland, J., Simkhada, B., Sherchan, L., Silwal, R.C., Pradhan, S., Maharjan, S.K., Maharjan, R.K. (2015) Mental health issues in pregnant women in Nepal. Nepal Journal of Epidemiology 5(3): 499-501.
- Simkhada, P., Winter, R.C., Fanning, C., Dhungel, A., Marahatta S.B. (2015) Why are so many Nepali women killing themselves? A review of key issues Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences 4(1): 43-49.
On Thursday 14th April Dr. Bibha Simkhada (Liverpool John Moores University & BU Visiting Faculty) and Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen presented their education research in Liverpool. The work is part of a THET-funded project at the 14th Britain-Nepal Academic Council (BNAC) Nepal Study Days. The presentation ‘Mental Health Training and Education in Nepal‘ is part of an international project led by Bournemouth University. BU collaborates with Tribhuvan University (Nepal’s largest & oldest university) and Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU). The project receives funding from DFID, and is managed through THET and supported locally in Nepal by a non-governmental organisation called Green Tara Nepal. The project takes UK volunteers, people with experience in midwifery, mental health, higher education, nursing, health visiting, etc. to the southern part of Nepal.
Mental health is a difficult topic to discuss in Nepal (as it often is in the UK). This makes it hard for front-line health workers, especially non-mental health specialists, to start a discussion about mental health issues with patients.
As part of this THET-funded programme to train community health worker such as Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) on mental health issues related to pregnancy, we conducted a review of all relevant health curricula in Nepal. The key findings are that mental health issues in pregnancy and childbirth are often lacking in the curricula for both nurses and ANMs as a result community-based staff lack training in this topic. There is a great need for a curriculum to facilitate relevant training for ANMs.
We would like to repeat our call for volunteers. If you are a health or education professional with an interest in mental health and/or maternity care and you are interested in volunteering later this year for a week to ten days in Nepal please contact Edwin van Teijlingen (email@example.com ).
FHSS PhD student Jib Acharya presented a poster from his thesis research at last week’s BNAC (Britain-Nepal Academic Council) Study Days in Liverpool. Jib’s PhD research focused on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of poor women about nutritious food and the study also identify major food barriers. He used a mixed-methods approached comprising a survey and qualitative research. The poster at BNAC focused on findings related to mothers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about nutritious food. Jib’s research is supervised by Dr. Jane Murphy, Dr. Martin Hind and Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen. Some of the preliminary findings of this FHSS thesis have recently been published in two academic journals. [2-3]
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
- Acharya, J, van Teijlingen, E, Murphy, J, Hind, M. ‘A Comparative Study on Nutritional Problems in Preschool Aged Children of Kaski district of Nepal’ poster at Britain-Nepal Academic Council (BNAC) 14th Annual Nepal Study Days (Liverpool April 2016)
- Acharya, J., van Teijlingen, E., Murphy, J., Hind, M. (2015) Assessment of knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards healthy diet among mothers in Kaski, Nepal, Participation 17(16): 61-72.
- Acharya, J., van Teijlingen, E., Murphy, J., Hind, M. (2015) Study of nutritional problems in preschool aged children in Kaski District in Nepal, Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare 1(2): 97-118. http://dspace.chitkara.edu.in/jspui/bitstream/1/560/1/12007_JMRH_Acharya.
Since late 2015 the world strives to achieve towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The SDGs bring together the social, economic and environmental aspects of development. There are 17 SDGs sub-divided into 169 targets. One of these 17 goals focuses specifically on health, namely to “ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all age”. SDG devotes 13 health-related targets to diverse population health and wellbeing issues including maternal and child health, communicable disease including HIV, non-communicable diseases, substance use, traffic accidents, universal access to sexual and reproductive health, and sanitation.
Nepal is one of the many countries that have signed up to the SDGs. This week BU researchers Dr. Pramod Regmi, Prof. Vanora Hundley, Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen, FHSS, PhD students Sheetal Sharma and Preeti Mahato, and BU Visiting Faculty Prof. Padam Simkhada (Liverpool John Moores University) published an editorial under the title ‘Sustainable Development Goals: relevance to maternal & child health in Nepal’ . This editorial written by health researchers working in Nepal highlights some of the weaknesses in the country’s health care system. These key problems include the persistence of inequalities in health and the limited access to health services and the low uptake of care in many poorer populations especially in the more remote rural regions. For instance, only about one in nine of the poorest women deliver their babies with the aid of a skilled birth attendant (SBA), whilst 81.5% for the richest women benefit form a SBA. Therefore, this editorial stresses the need for a continuum of health care services to be available across the country and for all sections of the society. Moreover, we can only assess whether a country has reached all or any of the SDGs if there is systematic monitoring and regular review of interventions at all levels. Hence, Nepal should develop measureable and time-bond indicators to track its progress towards the SDGs. The country will need support from development partners in both its attempts to achieve the SDGs as well when it tries to collect and analysis data to assess its progress.
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingn
- Regmi, P., van Teijlingen, E., Hundley, V., Simkhada, P., Sharma, S., Mahato, P. (2016) Sustainable Development Goals: relevance to maternal & child health in Nepal. Health Prospect 15(1):9-10. healthprospect.org/archives/15/1/3.pdf
Congratulations to FHSS post-doctoral researcher Dr. Pramod Regmi who is the lead author on the forthcoming editorial ‘Sustainable Development Goals: relevance to maternal and child health in Nepal’. The Centre for Midwifery, Maternal & Perinatal Health (CMMPH) has extensive research experience in the field of maternal and child health in Nepal. This latest editorial was invited by the editors of Health Prospect. The scientific journal Health Prospect is published by the Nepal Public Health Students’ Society.
The editorial outlines the recent history of the Millennium Development Goals which came to an end in 2015  and which are now replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals . The authors argue that continued technical and financial support from external development partners is necessary to sustain Nepal’s achievements in maternal and child health and to strengthen its health-service provision. They also suggest that the Sustainable Development Goals offer an opportunity to change Nepal for the better.
This is a joint publication with BU Visiting Faculty Prof. Padam Simkhada (Liverpool John Moores University) and two of CMMPH PhD students who research aspects of maternity care in Nepal, namely Sheetal Sharma and Preeti Mahato.
Professors Vanora Hundley & Edwin van Teijlingen
- Regmi, PR, van Teijlingen, E, Hundley, V, Simkahda, P., Sharma, S, Mahato, P. (2016) Sustainable Development Goals: relevance to maternal and child health in Nepal, Health Prospect (accepted for publication).
- van Teijlingen, E., Hundley, V., Matthews, Z., Lewis, G., Graham, W.J., Campbell, J., ten Hoope-Bender, P., Sheppard, Z.A., Hulton, L. (2014) Millennium Development Goals: All good things must come to an end, so what next? Midwifery 30: 1-2.
- World Health Organization (2015). Health in 2015: from MDGs, Millennium Development Goals to SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available: http://www.who.int/gho/publications/mdgs-sdgs/en/
On Wednesday Jan. 27th CMMPH PhD student Preeti Mahato will present her PhD research ideas under the title “Addressing quality of care and equity of services available at birthing centres to improve maternal and neonatal health in western Nepal.” Her presentation will be held at the Lansdowne Campus at 13.00 in room 301 in Royal London House.
Preeti’s research focuses on birthing centres in western Nepal; and quality and equity of service available at these facilities. In Nepal, birthing centres act as first contact point for the women seeking maternity services especially the basic obstetric care. The focus of this presentation will be to talk about the first review article Preeti Mahato wrote for the ‘Journal of Asian Midwives’ entitled “Birthing centres in Nepal: Recent development, obstacles and opportunities”. The article has been accepted for publication in June 2016 and focuses on introducing birthing centres, their current state of operation under the health system of Nepal, barriers they are facing and what could be done to improve their present state. The quality of care issue available at birthing centre is emphasised, since the number of these facilities are increasing however there is a growing trend to bypass and uptake services at hospitals. Despite barriers to utilisation of services at birthing centres, they can play an important role in increasing institutional delivery rate and proportion of births benefiting from a skilled birth attendant.
The second part of presentation will provide a brief summary on what Preeti has done since writing a review article, as she has worked on a systematic review on quality of basic obstetric care facilities in low and middle income countries.
Preeti Mahato has worked in the field of public health in Nepal for three years after completing her Master of Public Health. She has an interest in sexual and reproductive health, women’s health and maternal and child health. Working as a public health officer she was involved in maternal and neonatal health that developed her interest in pursuing a doctorate related to maternal and neonatal health. Part of her work in Nepal also included monitoring and supervision of birthing centres in rural areas of Nepal and that is how she became motivated to start a PhD at BU.
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
A few days I posted a short report of our first session as part of the THET-funded project ‘Mental Health Training for Community-based Maternity Providers in Nepal’, see this previous post here. Yesterday we completed the final third day training of the first session of this BU-led project. Over three days we had 70 ANMs (Auxiliary Nurse Midwives) in attendance, which we think is (nearly) all such staff based in all birthing centres in the district (=province). The three days were the same, i.e. each session was repeated twice so each day one third of the ANMs could attend, and two-third could be at work in the birthing centre ensuring women could deliver safely.
As part of this project we send UK volunteers (health and/or education) experts to Nepal to offer high quality training in areas where it is most needed. Further detail on this BU-led THET project can be found in our scientific paper Mental health issues in pregnant women in Nepal published in the Nepal Journal of Epidemiology available through Open Access. Mental illness is still very much a taboo topic in Nepal as it has often a serious stigma attached to it. Moreover, the relatively short training of ANMs is often fairly basic and the national curriculum does not cover mental health issues in any detail. This joint project between Bournemouth University, Liverpool John Mooores University, Tribhuvan University and the local charity Green Tata Nepal addresses issues about mental health in general and in pregnant women and new mothers in particular. Tribhuvan University is the oldest university in Nepal and one of the ten largest universities in the world (based on student numbers). The project is multi-disciplinary involving midwives, (mental health) nurses, and doctors as well as global health researchers, educationalists and sociologists.
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
BU student Rachel Arnold was mentioned in the end-of-year editorial of the Asian Journal of Midwives. Rachel Arnold has conducted her PhD research in the Centre for Midwifery, Maternal and Perinatal Health (CMMPH) on midwifery and maternity care provided in a hospital in Afghanistan. Her first PhD research work was published in the prestigious medical journal BJOG . Moreover, she was very recently quoted on Afghan maternal mortality data in one of the best-known newspapers globally, namely in The New York Times .
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
- Arnold, R., van Teijlingen, E.R., Ryan, K., Holloway, I. (2015) Understanding Afghan health care providers: A qualitative study of the culture of care in a Kabul maternity hospital, BJOG 122: 260-267.
- Nordland. R. (2015) ‘Reported Gains in Afghan Maternal Health Are Found to Be Implausible’ The New York Times Dec 4th, 2015. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/05/world/asia/afghanistan-maternal-mortality-rate.html
FHSS PhD student Rachel Arnold has been quoted in of one world’s most famous newspapers The New York Times. Late last week on Dec. 4th The New York Times published an article under the heading ‘Reported Gains in Afghan Maternal Health Are Found to Be Implausible’ . Rachel Arnold was interviewed since her PhD study, based in CMMPH, focuses on maternity care in one of the larger hospitals in the Afghan capital Kabul. Rachel has also published an excellent paper from her research in Afghanistan in the scientific journal BJOG . Her paper analyses the culture of a Kabul maternity hospital to understand its impact on the care of perinatal women and their babies. The paper is published in Gold Open Access, hence freely available to audiences across the globe,
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
Centre for Midwifery, Maternal & Perinatal Health
- Nordland. R. ‘Reported Gains in Afghan Maternal Health Are Found to Be Implausible’ The New York Times Dec 4th, 2015, see: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/05/world/asia/afghanistan-maternal-mortality-rate.html
- Arnold R, van Teijlingen E, Ryan K, Holloway I. Understanding Afghan health care providers; a qualitative study of the culture of care in a Kabul maternity hospital. BJOG 2015: 122(2): 260–267.
The latest BU research publication used a modelling approach to suicide in India . The paper ‘Time Trend of the Suicide Incidence in India: a Statistical Modelling’ is now online and freely available as it was published in an Open Access journal. The first author of this paper is BU Visiting Faculty Dr. Brijesh Sathian. The modelling resulted in some useful predictions of future risk of suicide at a population level, see for example: 10.12691.ajphr-3-5A-17.fig_1
Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen
Sathian, B. , De, A. , Teijlingen, E. V. , Simkhada, P. et al. (2015). Time Trend of the Suicide Incidence in India: a Statistical Modelling. American Journal of Public Health Research, 3(5A), 80-87. Online at: http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajphr/3/5A/17/